author = "Franck P. Vidal and Pierre-Frédéric Villard",
  title = "Development and validation of real-time simulation of X-ray imaging 
    with respiratory motion ",
  journal = "Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics ",
  year = "2016",
  volume = "49",
  pages = "1-15",
  month = apr,
  abstract = "Abstract We present a framework that combines evolutionary 
    optimisation, soft tissue modelling and ray tracing on \{GPU\} to 
    simultaneously compute the respiratory motion and X-ray imaging in 
    real-time. Our aim is to provide validated building blocks with high 
    fidelity to closely match both the human physiology and the physics of 
    X-rays. A CPU-based set of algorithms is presented to model organ 
    behaviours during respiration. Soft tissue deformation is computed with an
    extension of the Chain Mail method. Rigid elements move according to 
    kinematic laws. A GPU-based surface rendering method is proposed to 
    compute the X-ray image using the Beer–Lambert law. It is provided as an 
    open-source library. A quantitative validation study is provided to 
    objectively assess the accuracy of both components: (i) the respiration 
    against anatomical data, and (ii) the X-ray against the Beer–Lambert law and 
    the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Our implementation can be used in 
    various applications, such as interactive medical virtual environment to 
    train percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in interventional radiology,
     2D/3D registration, computation of digitally reconstructed radiograph, 
     simulation of 4D sinograms to test tomography reconstruction tools.",
  doi = "10.1016/j.compmedimag.2015.12.002",
  pmid = {26773644},
  issn = "0895-6111",
  keywords = "X-ray simulation, Deterministic simulation (ray-tracing), 
    Digitally reconstructed radiograph, Respiration simulation, 
    Medical virtual environment, Imaging guidance, 
    Interventional radiology training",
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  author = {{P.-F.} Villard and F. P. Vidal and C. Hunt and F. Bello and N. W.
	John and S. Johnson and D. A. Gould},
  title = {Simulation of Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography Training
	Simulator with Real-time Breathing Motion},
  journal = {International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 4,
  pages = {571-578},
  number = 9,
  month = nov,
  abstract = {Purpose: We present here a simulator for interventional radiology
	focusing on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). This
	procedure consists of inserting a needle into the biliary tree using
	fluoroscopy for guidance. Methods: The requirements of the simulator
	have been driven by a task analysis. The three main components have
	been identified: the respiration, the real-time X-ray display (fluoroscopy)
	and the haptic rendering (sense of touch). The framework for modelling
	the respiratory motion is based on kinematics laws and on the Chainmail
	algorithm. The fluoroscopic simulation is performed on the graphic
	card and makes use of the Beer-Lambert law to compute the X-ray attenuation.
	Finally, the haptic rendering is integrated to the virtual environment
	and takes into account the soft-tissue reaction force feedback and
	maintenance of the initial direction of the needle during the insertion.
	Results: Five training scenarios have been created using patient-specific
	data. Each of these provides the user with variable breathing behaviour,
	fluoroscopic display tuneable to any device parameters and needle
	force feedback. Conclusions A detailed task analysis has been used
	to design and build the PTC simulator described in this paper. The
	simulator includes real-time respiratory motion with two independent
	parameters (rib kinematics and diaphragm action), on-line fluoroscopy
	implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit and haptic feedback to
	feel the soft-tissue behaviour of the organs during the needle insertion.},
  doi = {10.1007/s11548-009-0367-1},
  pmid = {20033333},
  keywords = {Interventional radiology; Virtual environments; Respiration simulation;
	X-ray simulation; Needle puncture; Haptics; Task analysis},
  publisher = {Springer}

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